Wednesday, May 20, 2020

A Short History of Bluetooth

If you own a smartphone, tablet, laptop, speakers or any of the array of electronic devices on the market today, theres a good chance that, at some point, youve paired at least a couple of them together. And while virtually all our personal devices these days are equipped with Bluetooth technology, few people actually know how it got there. The Somewhat Dark Backstory Strangely enough, Hollywood and World War II played a pivotal role in the creation of not only Bluetooth, but a multitude of wireless technologies. It all began in 1937 when Hedy Lamarr, an Austrian-born actress, left her marriage to an arms dealer with ties to Nazis and fascist Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and fled to Hollywood in hopes of becoming a star. With the support of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio head Louis B. Mayer,  who promoted her to audiences as the worlds most beautiful woman, Lamarr notched roles in films such as Boom Town starring Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy, Ziegfeld Girl starring Judy Garland, and 1949 hit Samson and Delilah.   Somehow she also found time to do some inventing on the side. Using her drafting table, she experimented with concepts that included a reworked stoplight design and a fizzy instant drink that came in tablet form. Although none of them panned out, it was her collaboration with composer George Antheil on an innovative guidance system for torpedoes that set her on a course to change the world. Drawing on what she learned about weapons systems while she was married, the two used paper player piano rolls to generate radio frequencies that hopped around as a way to prevent the enemy from jamming the signal. Initially, the U.S. Navy was reluctant to implement Lamarr and Antheil’s spread-spectrum radio technology, but would later deploy the system to relay information about the position of enemy submarines to military aircraft flying overhead.   Today, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are two variations of spread-spectrum radio. Bluetooth’s Swedish Origins So who invented Bluetooth? The short answer is Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson. The team effort began in 1989 when the Chief Technology Officer of Ericsson Mobile, Nils Rydbeck, together with a physician named Johan Ullman, commissioned engineers Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson to come up with an optimal short-link radio technology standard for transmitting signals between personal computers to wireless headsets that they were planning to bring to the market. In 1990,  Jaap Haartsen was nominated by the  European Patent Office for the European Inventor Award.   The name Bluetooth is an anglicized translation of Danish King Harald Blà ¥tands surname. During the 10th century, the second King of Denmark was famous in Scandinavian lore for uniting the peoples of Denmark and Norway. In creating the Bluetooth standard, the inventors felt that they were, in effect, doing something similar in uniting the PC and cellular industries. Thus the name stuck. The logo is a viking inscription, known as a bind rune, that merges the kings two initials.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lack of Competition Given its ubiquity, some may also wonder why there arent any alternatives. The answer to this is a little more complicated. The beauty of Bluetooth technology is that it allows up to eight devices to be paired together via short-range radio signals that form a network, with each device functioning as a component of a larger system. To achieve this, Bluetooth-enabled devices must communicate using network protocols under a uniform specification. As a technology standard, similar to Wi-Fi , Bluetooths isnt tied to any product but is implemented by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, a committee charged with revising the standards as well as licensing the technology and trademarks to manufacturers. For instance, Bluetooth 4.2 (released in 2014) uses less power and features improved speeds and security compared to previous versions. It also allows for internet protocol connectivity so that smart devices can be linked.   That isn’t to say, however, that Bluetooth doesn’t have any competitors. ZigBee, a wireless standard overseen by the ZigBee Alliance was rolled out in 2005 and allows for transmissions over longer distances, up to 100 meters, while using less power. A year later, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group introduced Bluetooth low energy, aimed at reducing power consumption by putting the connection into sleep mode whenever it detected inactivity.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Trafficking And The United States Essay - 1585 Words

Looking the other way while close to 50% of the human trafficking in the United States end up in prostitution, what is going on in these states. The over sexed country does not help to stop it when we constantly promote sex in almost every aspect of life. People are losing their life to find a way to get to the United States through different forms of smuggling. Are these the people that we should be letting get in this country? Right under our nose the women, girls are being coerced into prostitution, and sex slaves, furthermore what do we do as parents, fathers, husbands and brothers to stop our women and girl from being forced into trafficking and being smuggled, however is immigration laws and legislation enough to help or are we the source of own problems? Human smuggling is one of the fastest growing global crimes but it is hard to decipher between human smuggling and trafficking in person which is also a fast growing intercontinental crime. Human smuggling is â€Å"the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person(s) across an international border, in violation of one or more country’s laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents.† During the process of smuggling some of the people are going voluntarily, to meet with their family, or to relocate to a better environment. Once the people reach they destination, they’re no longer in contact with the smuggler that brought them there forShow MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking And The United States1066 Words   |  5 PagesHuman trafficking has always been a though subject. Most Americans prefer to believe that this is a problem of the past, that it simply does not occur anymore. Others acc ept the fact that human trafficking exist, but in a far away reality, an incident homed only in poor, third world countries. This couldn’t be farther away from the truth. Human trafficking is a real and current problem in the United States, California being a hotspot for this issue, and with the Super Bowl in 2016 the problem willRead MoreHuman Trafficking And The United States1417 Words   |  6 PagesEach year about 17,500 individuals are brought into the United States and become victims of human trafficking. Every country has this problem and it has become the 3rd largest illegal industry worldwide. Human Trafficking is the trade of humans mainly for sexual slavery, but also forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker and sometimes others who take part in this act. Human trafficking is also used for organs or tissues, including surrogacy, ova removal, or making theseRead MoreHuman Trafficking And The United States962 Words   |  4 Pagestakes for cases to be prosecuted and to gain protections is very extensive. Intensifying the existing laws to better defend human trafficking victims is critical.The United States Government, in 2000, certified the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act. This act helps prosecute traffickers and support victims. Since then the number of recognized victims of trafficking has risen as well as trials and social service providers working with survivors. Because of this it gives researchers anRead MoreHuman Trafficking : The United States1740 Words   |  7 PagesHUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES: WHY SOME ST ATES HAVE MORE HUMAN TRAFFICKING CALLS THAN OTHERS INTRODUCTION Human trafficking is a growing endemic affecting an estimated 35.8 million men, women, and children around the world annually, as reported by the Global Slavery Index (GSI). The United States is not immune to this problem and has successfully identified 21,434 cases of human trafficking through the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline since 2007. As with crimes of thisRead MoreHuman Trafficking : The United States1250 Words   |  5 Pagessomeone talks about child trafficking? Do you think of children from third world countries being kidnapped or sold into the black market of human trafficking? Most of us probably think of human trafficking as being an issue that poor countries just have but, that isn’t the case. Human trafficking is alive and sadly thriving in the United States. According to Trafficking Source Center, 5,544 cases of human trafficking were reported in the United States in 2015. With human trafficking being around for soRead MoreHuman Trafficki ng And The United States Essay751 Words   |  4 PagesFACT SHEET Human trafficking in the United States Human trafficking, also known as trafficking in persons or modern day slavery, is an affront to the most basic of human freedoms. Human trafficking is a crime that strikes at the very heart of the American promise: freedom. In response to this abhorrent crime, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations have formed strong and growing partnerships aimed at ending this violation of fundamental civil rights and human dignity. 1. WhatRead MoreHuman Trafficking in the United States1603 Words   |  6 Pagesother countries to people in the United States. Imports and exports to and from the U.S include products as wide ranged as food, clothes, and even people. Human trafficking is a worldwide problem, including the United States. Currently, there are approximately 20.9 million people enslaved throughout the world with 2.5 million located in the United States. About 14,500 - 17,500 of foreign nationals are trafficked into the United States every year (Human trafficking statistics). These statistics showRead MoreHuman Trafficking in the United States2403 Words   |  10 PagesHuman Trafficking The United States has always been known for sticking their nose in places where it does not belong. America has been part of wars that could have been avoided, scandals that had nothing to do with the United States. Millions of lives over the years could have been spared if America would have just simply stayed where they belong. What if though, America feels like they have to get involved in forging affairs if they think it can cause or is causing a problem on American soil orRead MoreHuman Trafficking : The United States2136 Words   |  9 PagesHuman trafficking is a prominent problem within the United States that is often overlooked. The definition of human trafficking is, â€Å"Human trafficking - the illegal practice of procuring or trading in human beings for the purpose of prostitution, forced labor, or other forms of exploitation† (â€Å"Human trafficking†). People in the United States believe that human trafficking is a problem that occurs in other less dev eloped countries compared to the United States. What these individuals do not realizeRead MoreHuman Trafficking And The United States1230 Words   |  5 Pagesaround 15,000 are trafficked in the United States. Half of those are children. Not all cases are reported, and there are few victims rescued in comparison to the millions that are still helpless each and every year. Human trafficking is an epidemic all across the world and many countries are doing all they can to stop it. But what about the United States; what are we doing to stop it and is what we’re doing enough? What is human trafficking? It is defined by the United Nations as â€Å"the recruitment, transportation

Adam and Eve - Short Essay free essay sample

At first glance this fresco does not look very dramatic. Adam and Eve are tempted and make the mistake that costs them Eden. However, we need to think of what exactly was lost. In Catholic theology, the time before the fall was also a time of peace, happiness, without sickness or even death. God created man in Gods own image (Gen. 1:27). We clearly suffer now; we are prone to illness; we age; we die. The God of goodness did not create us to exist in this state, so how could it happen? We did it to ourselves. On one side of the image, there is a richer green. There are the leaves of the tree. On the other side, the land is flat, barren, more like a savanna. Eve is reclining on the Eden side, to indicate the rest and the lack of any need that was present in paradise. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam and Eve Short Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On the other side, both are walking, to signify their lack of rest or ease. They are both cowering down and look to have aged a great deal. Before the fall, notice how Eve looks healthy, beautiful and intelligent. Contrast how she looks after she is expelled from Eden, aging, unwell, and frightened. Her arms cover her breasts out deep emotion, and perhaps shame. On the side before the fall, Adam looks young and fit. Adam would not age until the fall; it is a consequence of original sin. Also, notice how the angel doesnt just threaten with the sword. Adam cannot go back, not with the angels sword on the back of his neck. There is deadly purpose here. Adams hands appear to be warding off the angel, surrendering, saying that he is going. I would consider the Bible a complex network of myths, very few of the stories in the Bible can be scientifically proven and the book itself is very complex and the stories are very intricate as if they were imaginary. The Bible if probably one of the most if not the most culturally important book in the world. This story in particular, the expulsion from the Garden of Eden conveys political and moral values of our culture; the loss of grace through original sin and its consequence. The invention of superhuman entities is clearly visible in this fresco; the serpent and the angel are both superhuman. The Bible is also filled with rituals, ceremonies, and dramas. The expulsion from the Garden of Eden is most definitely a drama.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

People, Organization, Management Essay Sample free essay sample

Introduction Apart from a feasible merchandise or service. a successful company today must hold a well-define organisational design. a well-established organisational civilization. and teamwork among the employees. These three constituents. combined with a reliable merchandise or service. are strong indexs of a company’s capacity for advancement and stableness. For the intent of this paper. a comparative analysis of two companies will be conducted based on their single organisational design or construction. organisational civilization. and teamwork. From the designation of their varying features. a all-around set of guidelines will be established to make the ideal company set-up ( Nadler A ; Rushman. 1997 ) that would boom in the concern universe of today. The first company is Safety Mint ( UK ) Ltd. It is a household run company that was passed on from one coevals to another. The laminitis. Samuel Mint. established the company in 1902 as a maker of steel transporting containers. Today the Mint household. We will write a custom essay sample on People, Organization, Management Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page as represented by Samson Mint. who is besides the current President of the company. owns 70 % of the portions. While the other 30 % is ain by three separate entities similarly represented in the Board of Directors. Safety Mint still continues to run in the same manner they did in over 100 old ages of being. Very minimum alterations in procedures and processs have been adapted. including direction manner and human resource patterns. There are several issues that need turn toing that are virtually unmarked because of the austere rebelliousness to alter by both leading and employees. Docklands Solutions Ltd. is the 2nd company discussed in this paper. Founded in 1997. this 10 twelvemonth old company is an expert in computing machine package and securities engineering. Tony Adabayo is the self-made laminitis of Docklands Solutions. He commissioned five other co-workers to get down this first coevals company. Docklands Solutions has since so grown from 6 to 150 employees in its short history. The leading of Docklands Solutions recognizes the value of employees to growing of a company. In concern programs and schemes. employees are considered every bit of import with clients. Therefore. programs and schemes frequently revolve around client and employee satisfaction. As a consequence a low turnover has been experienced at Docklands Solutions since its constitution in 1997. A glance into the overview of the two companies already shows really distinguishable differences between Safety Mint and Docklands Solutions. However. it can non be deduced that one company is merely better than the other. Both companies possess qualities that prove to be AIDSs for concern success. This paper will therefore place these qualities and find their significance in making a winning concern today. The Practice of Teamwork Businesss today acknowledge that teamwork is one of the basic constituents to construct a great and durable ( Rose. 2007 ) company. It is the facet that contributes coherence ( Hubpages. com. 2007 ) to the full concern. Simply put. teamwork does non merely vouch smooth operational systems. it besides provides solidarity in footings of ends and aims. Teamwork is indispensable to a thriving concern. Looking into Safety Mint. one would notice compensate away that teamwork is barely a factor in the concern. What makes it even more hard for teamwork to happen is that Safety Mint is a nonionized company. As a general feeling. nonionized companies create a comparatively more combative workplace ( Grossman. 2005 ) . Union workers develop more trueness towards their association that to the company itself. On the other manus. leading in nonionized companies are ever wary of brotherhoods and have the inclination to project a defensive stance towards them. Safety Mint has experienced several seeking state of affairss with their brotherhoods. In fact. in the last 5 old ages the company faced 8 work stoppages form their Liverpool production workers. These work stoppages have caused considerable harm to the company’s operations. The negative impact these work stoppages have brought to the Leadership of the company has made them see brotherhoods as nuisance to come on. Unions in companies should be collaborative in nature ( Grossman. 2005 ) . They should assist in accomplishing company ends while protecting the involvement of member employees. In Safety Mint. the brotherhood is more of a hinderance to ends. And as member employees are frequently preoccupied with their ain involvements. company ends take a backseat. productiveness becomes secondary. The presence of a brotherhood is non the lone factor that hinders teamwork. Safety Mint is besides one-sided when it comes to decision-making. Out of 407 employees. less than 10 people make determinations. Very small input is given by employees even when determinations ( Team Builders Worldwide. 2008 ) greatly affect their day-to-day work activities. Therefore employees are non empowered plenty to originate alterations that might turn out helpful in footings of productiveness. Docklands Solutions in bend shows really strong features of teamwork. Leadership puts really high respect to employee input when doing determinations. peculiarly those that affect day-to-day work activities. The company encourages employees to hold a positive position ( Maxwell. 2001 ) on things. As a consequence. it creates a free-flow of thoughts that by and large contribute to the credence of company ends as their ain. A great trade of the company’s success may be attributed to teamwork. Employees exhibit a sense of trueness to non merely the work they do but to the ultimate aims ( Hubpages. com. 2007 ) of the company every bit good. Thingss get done through a high public presentation built into a harmonious work environment. While Docklands Solutions seem to boom with teamwork. Safety Mint battles. Teamwork is first and foremost an enterprise ( Maxwell. 2001 ) of a company’s Leadership. The Leadership should be sold in the thought before the employees catch on. Docklands Solutions Leaders provide the inspiration and so employees easy adapt to it. On the other manus. Safety Mint’s more than 100 old ages history has made its Leadership complacent with old-school wonts and patterns. The autocratic manner is preferred over teamwork. Although the success of Safety Mint can non be discounted over the old ages. new concern kineticss demand a reshaping of these old patterns. Docklands Solutions. being a younger company. seems to accommodate better with new concern systems. And since teamwork is a comparatively new concern construct. the company seems more unfastened to it. The Organizational Structure and Design An ideal organisational construction or design is one that supports the company’s policies. predominating behavior within the company and public presentation ( Galbraith. 1995 ) . The star theoretical account of Galbraith emphasizes the relationship between five different elements of an organisational design. These elements are scheme. construction. people. wages. and procedure. To accomplish success in concern these elements should work cohesively together. A newer return on organisational construction focuses on the hunt for competitory advantage as a shaping end ( Nadler A ; Rushman. 1997 ) of concerns today. While it considers proficient expertness. human input and scheme ( Nadler A ; Rushman. 1997 ) as of import factors to a thriving concern. this comparatively new construct acknowledges the demand for concerns to be frontward looking. Docklands Solutions is basically a company born from the coming of the information age. By and large the concern systems incorporated by the company address the demands of the times. The Leaders of the company are well-versed with their merchandises and services. In fact. they have personal input in the creative activity and development of most their merchandises and services. Employees are every bit tech understanding. They are rather comfy in carry oning concern for the company. There is a good working relationship among the Leaders and the employees. Strategic designs are clear to everyone in the company. Both Leaders and employees know where the company is headed and how to acquire at that place. They portion common involvements and are rather prepared to work together to accomplish ends and aims. At Safety Mint the concern construction was established upon its initiation in 1902. While it remains formidable in footings of merchandise expertness. the Leadership today does non needfully portion the same passion for the merchandise and services as their Laminitis. Taking in the basic difference of passion between leaders and directors. the Leadership of Safety Mint today is no longer leading but chiefly managerial. It would look that the Leadership is no longer invested in the company. This is the basic quandary of the company. When the Leader no longer possesses the desire or involvement to develop the company. employees will absorb the same attitude. And while the company remains a leader in the industry because of their quality merchandises. this alone ( Galbraith. 1995 ) will non be able to prolong the full company in the long tally. Another thing traveling against Safety Mint is its slow reaction to the demands of concerns today. While their competition is doing the most of new concern systems. Safety Mint still Bankss on old patterns. Truth be told. the company. while still strong in the industry. is the last to acclimatise to the information age. Integrating alterations ( Nadler A ; Rushman. 1997 ) is by and large viewed as disbursal instead than an investing. Even employee know-how becomes outdated because the Leadership finds it unneeded to fit them farther. The dislocation in the organisational construction of the company was strongly felt in 2007 when Safety Mint experienced its first year-end loss in its history. Safety Mint in footings of organisational construction is really traditional. It still applies the same schemes. expertness and human kineticss as when it was foremost founded. The creative activity of the Board of Directors did really small to alter the Leadership set-up of the company. Leadership still remains one-sided for most parts. Therefore. the likeliness of integrating alterations within the construction lies to a great extent on the determinations made by the Leadership. Organizational construction of Docklands Solutions is really different. Although still non really ideal for some parts. at least the company is more flexible when it comes to reacting to altering times. Since the Leadership values employee input. alterations are more likely to happen in a congruous mode. At the same clip the Leadership and employees are both progressive minds. the likeliness of promotion is more apparent. Organizational construction is a really of import index of success ( Galbraith. 1995 ) . The stronger the concern foundation. the farther the concern will progress. Safety Mint began with a well-established organisational construction. The foundation created more than 100 old ages of fruitful being for the company. It is unfortunate that the foundation that Safety Mint successfully established no longer fits the demands on concerns today. Furthermore. it would look that this really foundation is what’s maintaining the company from progressing further. On the other side of the spectrum is Docklands Solutions. The company is highly fictile to the times. And because it is a comparatively new company. its foundation is still really much applicable to the prevailing concern systems of today. The Prevailing Organizational Culture Interpersonal relationships. attitude towards work. inaugural. committedness. trueness and productiveness are great indexs of organisational civilization ( Queensland Government. 2007 ) . The more positive the degrees are of these factors. the more positive the prevalent civilization within the company. A positive civilization ( Attitude Works ) produces happier employees. better merchandises and better company public presentation. In kernel the organisational civilization is imperative in a collaborative ( Hayes. 2007 ) and successful company. Employees merely work better in a positive environment. At the same clip. employees are more likely to react to alter in a more encouraging mode. This is necessary in footings of concerns today when alterations are required rather frequently. The prevalent organisational civilizations of the two companies. Safety Mint and Docklands Solutions. can non be more different. As a affair of fact. they are really polar antonyms. While at Docklands Solutions. employees seem to bask traveling to work because of the positive environment within the company. at Safety Mint. employees drag themselves to work. At Safety Mint. absenteeism is a large concern. Leadership plays a important function in constructing a positive civilization. At Docklands Solutions. there is an unconventional relationship between the Leadership and employees. There is a free-flow of thoughts and an optimistic mentality all about. The Leadership continuously expresses their gratitude to the employees. In bend. the employees reciprocate through increased degrees of productiveness and trueness. The positive organisational civilization in Docklands Solutions contributed vastly to the high keeping quotient of the company. The positive organisational civilization within Safety Mint has since diminished with clip. There seems to be a turning sense of weariness among the Leadership and employees. An accurate description of the company’s civilization today would be a general deficiency of enthusiasm. This is evidently non helpful in footings of the company’s public presentation. It can be said that its bing organisational civilization is what pulled it down to a year-end loss in 2007 as good. Employees are uninspired and the Leadership seems withdrawn and unaffected. Safety Mint used to be a company of verve that is why it was able to last every bit long as it did. However. the relaxation of its organisational civilization deduces the chance of the company to progress even farther. and last even longer. In kernel. organisational civilization makes or interrupt a company. Docklands Solutions and Safety Mint merely conveying these possibilities to visible radiation. And while Docklands Solutions may look unable to make anything incorrect. Safety Mint was there earlier. Organizational civilization is easy affected by success. clip and external influences. Docklands Solutions demands to work on prolonging ( Hayes. 2007 ) their existing civilization and non be excessively self-satisfied. Decision For a company to boom with the new demands on concern today. it has to detect good patterns in footings of teamwork. construct a concrete organisational construction and promote a positive organisational civilization. Based on the features of Safety Mint and Docklands Solutions. it would look that the latter has a better opportunity of success in concern today. On the other manus. the history of Safety Mint can non be denied. At most the chief concern with the company is concern weariness. This is a common happening with older concerns. One that even Docklands Solutions should be wary about. In decision it could be said that to last the demands on concerns today. a company must construct on features that would stand the trial of clip. It should non merely see what are best patterns for success but should besides hold good foresight to make a strong foundation that can defy the menace of concern weariness. Bibliography Attitude Works. Constructing a positive workplace civilization. Retrieved on March 18. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. attitudeworks. com. au/Aw_pages/attitudes/positive/positive. hypertext markup language Galbraith. J. ( 1995 ) . Planing organisation: An executive briefing on scheme construction and procedure. San Francisco: Josse – Bass Publishing. Grossman. R. ( 2005 ) . A narrative of two ( nonionized ) companies. HRMagazine. Hayes. J. ( 2007 ) . What is workplace civilization and what does it intend? Retrieved on March 18. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //codelnes. cyberspace. au/2007/02/what-is-workplace-culture-and-what-does-it-mean Hubpages. com ( 2007 ) . Teamwork in concern. Retrieved on March 18. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //hubpages. com/hub/businessteamwork. com Mawell. J. ( 2001 ) . The 17 incontestable Torahs of teamwork. Nasville. Volunteer state: Thomas Nelson Inc. Nadler. D. A ; Rushman. M. ( 1997 ) . Competing by design: The power of organisational architecture. New York: Oxford Community Press. Queensland Government ( 2007 ) . Workplace civilization. Retrieved on March 18. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. deir. qld. gov. au/industrial/family/policies/implementation/culture/index. htm Rose. R. ( 2007 ) . Company teamwork: Is it existent teamwork or battle for power. Associated Content. Team Builders Worldwide ( 2008 ) . The importance of teamwork. Retrieved on March 18. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. teambuilders. com/importance-of-teamwork. asp

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Sherman-Anti Trust Act essays

Sherman-Anti Trust Act essays What was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? How was it used during the Presidency of Roosevelt? During the 19th century the emergence of what we now call the economy was born. Prior to 1840 there were really no such thing as big business. The first real big business was the Railroad. The building of the Railroad Empire and rail lines throughout the United States drastically changed the American way of life. Due to new abilities to travel long distances and communicate at a much faster pace than before, the American economy began to boom. Competition between Railroad lines was a cutthroat and fierce environment. Railroad executives were in line to become extremely wealthy. Not only were the Railroad companies booming but also the steel manufacturing business was working overtime to supply steel for the railroad line. Steel companies were also experiencing stiff competition. The result of all of the competition between large industry was that the companies turned to Pools, Trusts, and Holding companies for a solution. The holding companys goal was to control price competition through cooperation and coordination of rival businesses. This resulted in large monopolies. Larger railroad companies would intimidate and buy out the smaller ones putting themselves in total control of the railroad business. In 1890, with the support of President Benjamin Harrison, Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. John Sherman, a lawyer and senator from Ohio, was the author of the legislation that attempted to curb the growth of monopolies. The act declared illegal any business combination that sought to restrain trade or commerce. Penalties for violation of the act included a $5,000 fine and/or a years imprisonment. Due to the vague wording of the act and the lack of a commission willing to enforce the act, it was rarely ever put into use. In 1904 President Teddy Roosevelt revitaliz ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Case Analysis Of Jason Learning Disability

Analysis of the case scenario suggests that the person Jason, a 29 years aged male, presents some variety of mental disorders. Upon his admission to the medium secure unit, a thorough analysis of the patient’s history suggests that he suffers from learning disability,  and intermittent explosive disorder. Signs of depression are also observed in the patient. People with mental illness are often subjected to social stigma and discrimination that worsen their situation and make it difficult for them to recover. According to research studies, 1 in 4 people are likely to experience mental health problems at some point of their lives (Fazel and Seewald 2012). Furthermore, such mental health problems have also been found among 1 in 10 children globally (Reupert and Kowalenko 2013). Learning disabilities are neurological problems that interfere with the basic skills of learning suggest writing reading or calculating. These disabilities are often found to interfere with higher mental faculties such his time planning, organization, memory, abstract reasoning and attention (Cortiella and Horowitz 2014). Such disabilities have been found to create a negative impact on the academic of a person in addition to hampering his or her relationship with friends, family and workplace. Owing to the fact that the patient Jason suffers from learning disability since childhood, it can be stated that there is a gap between his potential and actual achievements (Geary 2013). Emotional regulation can often be defined as a complex process that encompasses initiation, inhibition and modulation of the mental state and behavior of an individual in response to a stimulus. These stimuli provoke subjective experiences such as feelings or emotions, followed by cognitive processes such as thoughts (Barlow, Allen and Choate 2016). An analysis of the case scenario suggests that Jason suffered from depression, which features em otional dysregulation. It makes him unable to regulate his emotional response with regards to provocative stimuli. This is established by his previous history of conflicts in relationship or perceived abandonment. This often contributes to the sudden bursts of anger and passive aggressive behavior that he manifests. According to the DSM-V criteria, emotional dysregulation is considered as an essential feature of a large number of psychological disorders. Presence of depressive symptoms in the person can be attributed to symptoms of loneliness and social withdrawal (Strang et al. 2012). Loneliness often includes anxious feelings regarding lack of communication or connection with other beans. Such lack of social connection can be directly linked to his antisocial or hostile behavior towards others. Depressive symptoms are confirmed by signs of social withdrawal and lack of interest to attend pleasurable activities (Martin, Neighbors and Griffith 2013). The fact that Jason always carries a nice and gives repeated threats to harm others can be correlated with presence of intermittent explosive disord er, which is characterized by sudden outburst of violence and anger that is disproportionate to the situation (Coccaro 2015).   Such behavior is often triggered by inconsequential events and results in disproportionate reactions to real or perceives provocation. Therefore, there is a need to implement cognitive behavioral therapy, Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) and psychotropic medications to improve the overall health and well-being of the person. The therapy is aimed towards helping people suffering from borderline personality disorder and mood disorders, by changing thoughts related to self harm to others or suicidal ideations (Linehan et al. 2015). It will increase the cognitive and emotional regulation of the person by gaining information about the triggers and underlying factors that contribute to search inappropriate reactive states (McMain et al. 2012). It will further help in assessing the coping skills that need to be applied to avoid such undesirable behavior. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy such as cognitive relaxation and coping skills therapy will help in counteracting panic anxiety and anger, thereby treating intermittent explosive behavior. The intervention plan that will be device for the treatment of Jason will keep in consideration his presenting signs and symptoms, and the predisposing factors that might have increased his likelihood of getting affected with mental disorder. The common symptoms that he manifests include escalating patterns of sudden aggressive behavior such as using a knife to threat members of the community. Therefore, in order to treat presence of intermittent explosive behavior and depression, cognitive behavioral therapy and dialectical behavioral therapy will prove most effective. According to the DSM-5 diagnosis, depressed mood is characterized by subjective reports of feeling sad, hopeless or empty throughout the day. It is also marked by diminished pleasure or interest in daily activities, accompanied by psychomotor retardation or agitation (Copeland et al. 2013). DBT will focus on accepting and healthy and uncomfortable behavior and will help Jason to acknowledge that most of his self-destructive or depressing behaviors are inappropriate. A person suffering from major depressive disorder often experiences feelings of worthlessness, which in turn creates an overwhelming atmosphere of sadness that invalidate all aspects of their life (Harned et al. 2012). Therefore, the primary aim of this intervention is to reduce negative behaviors and modulates extreme emotions, which contributes to depression (Miller, Carnesale and Courtney 2014). Moreover, it will allow the patient to trust self-thoughts, emotions and activities. The proposed intervention includes conduction of dialectical behavior therapy for 1 hour, twice a week for 8 months, and coping skills therapy for 6 months. Establishing a good rapport with the patient is the primary criteria of providing the intervention as it will help in fostering an efficient therapeutic relationship. The background of the patient including his job information, his childhood, education and personal history will be collected, in order to formulate a better diagnosis plan. Effective communication can be initiated by making direct eye contact, and using appropriate hand gestures and nonverbal communication skills (Morse et al. 2012). Showing an authentic interest in the concerned patient and picking up on cues from his responses will also help in identification of issues other than the main problem. In addition to using appropriate communication skills, active listening will also facilitate establishment of a good rapport. Furthermore, it will help in miscommunication or misinterpretation. Mindfulness- This is the basic foundation of the therapy as it assists an individual to tolerate and accept all powerful emotions that appear while challenging certain habits or getting exposed to upsetting situations. The therapist will assist Jason to pay attention to the present moment, in a non-judgmental manner, while experiencing his senses and emotions to the maximum level. Jason will also be made more aware of senses related to smell touch taste sight and sound (Mehlum et al. 2014). Emotional regulation- This skill will create opportunities for identifying obstacles that prevent demonstration of appropriate emotion. It will also help in reducing vulnerability to the emotion mind and will increase mindfulness and positive approach to emotional events. It will help the patient to correctly interpret an event with appropriate use of body language sensation and action. A counselor will also be required while conducting this module of the therapy (Essau et al. 2012). The counselor will provide assistance in making the patient understand the ill effects of the drugs on physical and mental health. Distress tolerance- This is the third module of the therapy, which will allow the patient to respond or deal appropriately to distressing circumstances such as serious illness, traumatic events, financial loss, or death of beloved people. It will help the patient to learn the way of bearing pain skillfully. This in turn will enhance the ability to accept such situations in a non-judgmental and non-evaluative manner. Interpersonal effectiveness- This will focus on enhancing problem solving skills and increasing assertiveness. All the patients suffering from intermittent explosive disorder or depression possess good interpersonal skills. However, they often fail to apply these skills in current situation. The module will focus on situations related to changing an objective or to resisting changes. It will make Jason show an inclination to contact his family members, rather than avoiding them (Bedics et al. 2012). Jason will be provided with homework when he would have to pick specific problem sir behaviors from the provided list, and will have to identify the pros and cons of either acting on or resisting the urges. This will help in determining effectiveness of the therapy. Due to the fact that aggressive behavior can lead to an intended or serious consequences, coping skills therapy will be implemented in this case scenario to help Jason adapt himself to cope or mitigate with his reactions. Jason’s aggressive behavior can be attributed to his upbringing, relationship with family, being bullied at school and work difficulties. These results in the explosive behavior that makes him demonstrate harm towards self and others. Such overtly confrontational antisocial behavior can be correlated with his previous history of stealing and physical aggression (Coccaro 2012). Lack of proper parenting is also another major contributing factor. Practicing relaxation techniques- This will help Jason to manage his anger by participating in techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation and meditation. Involving the diaphragm muscle of the abdomen while breathing, will help in reducing stress and anxiety. Progressive muscle relaxation will make the person coordinate between relaxing and sensing a variety of muscle groups in the body. Meditation will also help in achieving equilibrium, thereby balancing between emotions and gaining a mastery over thoughts and feelings (Meuret et al. 2012). Self-monitoring thoughts- This will help the patient to closely monitor thoughts and feelings with regards to the determined standard, which in turn will help in correlating the actions. It will also involve homework when Jason will be made to measure his thoughts in relation to social circumstances, and then compare them with behavior that should be displayed during such instances. Setting and managing goals- Having a goal or objective in life helps in giving a purpose or direction. This skill will motivate the patient to focus on improving his life and accomplish his goals in future. It will help him in setting appropriate objectives with a directed vision, without getting stressed. This in turn will improve his mood, and quality of life, by reducing hostile attitude and anger. Cognitive restructuring- This module will help in identifying and learning maladaptive or irrational thoughts, commonly referred to as cognitive distortions. It will focus on emotional reasoning, magical thinking and all or none thinking. This will help in preventing extreme thoughts in the person. A counselor will play an important role while implementing this module, by helping Jason identify his irrational beliefs that affect his behavior as well as emotions (Salloum and Overstreet 2012). The homework for this therapy would include coping skills exercise where Jason will be made to list a minimum of 5 instances when he felt like procrastinating, comforting himself, or showing violent behavior towards the receiver. He will be made to circle the coping skills that he considers counterproductive or an healthy, and will also be made to suggest healthier alternatives. This will determine positive implications of the administered therapy. In addition, physician will be consulted for administration of atypical antidepressant drugs such as aripripazole, citalopram or bupropion for preventing recurrence of his depressive symptoms. Several challenges and ethical considerations that might arise while caring for Jason include his low self esteem and unwillingness to participate. Presence of depressive symptoms often makes a person show apathy, which might make him reluctant to get treated. He might fail to understand the rational of the aforementioned two therapies, and may resort to violence attitude. Therefore, effective interpersonal skills and showing sensitivity towards the patient is needed. The primary strength of dielectric behavioral therapy lies in the fact that several randomized control trials have been conducted which have determined its effectiveness for treating borderline personality disorder and depression. The aforementioned mental diseases are severe and persistent in most people. Implementation of this therapy among such patients has shown long-term adherence and compliance in the target population. Recent findings have suggested that this behavioral therapy is successful in addressing the problematic behaviors manifested by patients, and help in elimination of abnormal mental state (Pistorello et al. 2012). According to research findings, use of DBT in combination with medication produces even better results. According to several research studies, combining the therapy with atypical antipsychotic medications such as olanzapine helps in reducing depression, impulsivity, and anxiety among patients, and also shows and improvement in treatment adherence. Effec tiveness of the therapy has been established by other studies conducted in outpatient settings as well, where the therapy has shown significant positive impacts in reducing suicidal ideation, and depression (Bedics et al. 2012). Similar findings have been reported other randomized control trials, where the therapy has been proved effective in eliminating signs and symptoms of hopelessness, social withdrawal, and para-suicidal behavior. However, the major limitation is associated with the fact that most of the available research that investigated effectiveness of the therapy had been conducted on small sample sizes, and focused on specific sectors of mental health population. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate whether the therapy is effective for people suffering from different mental health disorders. Moreover, most studies were conducted by doctoral level students or highly educated professionals, which indicate an intensive training is required before implementing the therapy on patients (Mehlum et al. 2014). Furthermore, there is a lack of follow-up interview in the trials that have been conducted. Hence, long-term benefits of the therapy are not yet established. Moreover, the therapy is a demanding p rocess and required patients to spend several hours during his conduction. Patient suffering from depression shows reluctance to its implementation. In addition, the therapy focuses on the approach that can be implemented up on patients who are ready to acknowledge their illness and show compliance during the therapy sessions. Hence, any form of hesitance from the patient might lead to misleading results. On the other hand, several studies have been carried out that have established effectiveness of the coping skills therapy. It has proved effective in increasing the ability to tolerate various forms of uncertainty during explosive disorder or depression. According to research trials, this therapy often leads to avoidance of situations that can make a person procrastinate or delay taking action. Another benefit is associated with the fact that it impacts the ability to recognize rumination or repeated botherations about a thought, by influencing the person to attempt problem solving (Hayes 2016). Research findings also suggest that this therapy helps in blocking out distressing thoughts, reduce intensity, and lower rates of intermittent explosive behaviour. Further benefits are related with the ability to identify thought distortions, such as, negative predictions or personalizing, which often contribute to such explosive attitude. The skills employed by this therapy have shown positive impacts in increasing will power, reducing avoidance coping, and preventing violent behavior (Rector and Beck 2012). Research studies also suggest that the therapy not only eliminates anxiety and panic behaviour, but also enhances self-improvement motivation. However, the major limitation is associated with the fact that not much research trials have been conducted to determine effectiveness of this therapy among people suffering from mental problems, in addition to learning disability. Furthermore, at times it may often overlook troubling issues, related to personal history or family (Collins, Woolfson and Durkin 2014). While the administration of atypical antidepressants might help in preventing recurrence of depressive disorder, certain side effects such as, insomnia, blurred vision, dry mouth, weight gain, increased appetite, fatigue, and nausea may be observed. Thus, a critical evaluation of Jason's case scenario suggests that dielectric behavioral therapy and coping skills cognitive behavioral therapy will be most effective in providing relief and improving his mental health status. Barlow, D.H., Allen, L.B. and Choate, M.L., 2016. Toward a Unified Treatment for Emotional Disorders–Republished Article.  Behavior therapy,  47(6), pp.838-853. Bedics, J.D., Atkins, D.C., Comtois, K.A. and Linehan, M.M., 2012. Treatment differences in the therapeutic relationship and introject during a 2-year randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts for borderline personality disorder.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,  80(1), p.66. Coccaro, E.F., 2012. Intermittent explosive disorder as a disorder of impulsive aggression for DSM-5.  American Journal of Psychiatry,  169(6), pp.577-588. Coccaro, E.F., 2015. Intermittent explosive disorder.  Psychiatric Times,  32(3), pp.47-47. Collins, S., Woolfson, L.M. and Durkin, K., 2014. Effects on coping skills and anxiety of a universal school-based mental health intervention delivered in Scottish primary schools.  School Psychology International,  35(1), pp.85-100. 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Harned, M.S., Korslund, K.E., Foa, E.B. and Linehan, M.M., 2012. Treating PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder: Development and preliminary evaluation of a dialectical behavior therapy prolonged exposure protocol.  Behaviour research and therapy,  50(6), pp.381-386. Hayes, S.C., 2016. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Relational Frame Theory, and the Third Wave of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies–Republished Article.  Behavior therapy,  47(6), pp.869-885. Linehan, M.M., Korslund, K.E., Harned, M.S., Gallop, R.J., Lungu, A., Neacsiu, A.D., McDavid, J., Comtois, K.A. and Murray-Gregory, A.M., 2015. Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis.  JAMA psychiatry,  72(5), pp.475-482. Martin, L.A., Neighbors, H.W. and Griffith, D.M., 2013. 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Thursday, February 13, 2020

Back ground - research method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Back ground - research method - Essay Example Legislative corruption on the other hand relates to the mode of bribing the political authorities to gain undue advantage at a later stage (Kurer, 2005, p.234). However, this paper focuses on the embezzlement of funds by public officials. The paper tends to infer about the relation of the behavioral practices of embezzlement of funds by public administrators to the low basic salary received. Description of the Background of the Issue The menace of corruption related to embezzlement of Public Funds earns a vivid relation to the pattern of low payment structures offered to the public government officials. It is found that in economies like Tanzania the salary received by the public officials was not enough to cover up their domestic expenditures that contributed as one of the factors in enhancing the embezzlement behavior. This embezzlement practice of the Public Officials related to the tax revenues happens to render fiscal pressures on the economy of the region like Tanzania making i t weaker (Fjeldstad, 2003, p.165, 168-169). Relating to the above issue different instances would be incorporated from other literary sources reflecting on the relation of the embezzlement behavior of the government officials and their low salary structures. It would also focus on rendering effective recommendations thereof. . Description of the Literature Embezzlement of Funds by Public Administrators and its Impact on the Economy Myint (2000) states that one of the significant evidences of corruption in the hands of public government officials relates to the embezzlement of public funds for their own personal and domestic use. Public officials usually engage in embezzlement on an individual basis without third party intervention.. Embezzlement behavior of government officials bears a strong relation to the low salary payments provided to them that, in turn, fails to support their living conditions in this cost driven economy. Further, the embezzlement behavior of these government officials is found to render potential impacts on the economy of the emerging economies thereby increasing their internal and external debt and similarly deteriorating economic and social structure (Myint, 2000, p.35, 40, and 45). Ante (2010) reflects that the practice of the public or government officials relating to the embezzlement of public funds happen to render considerable impacts on the economic and social system of a country or region thereby affecting it both financially and structurally. In the case of emerging economies such types of exploitative practices of government officials drains on the regional economy and thereby tends to be one of the significant factors resulting to economic and social disparity. Drainage of funds kept for social or public use through embezzlement by public government officials contributes in enhancing the poverty level in the society at large. Growing levels of poverty thereby deprives the poor people from their social and economic rights (An te, 2010, p.249). Trebilcock and Prado (2011) observe that the activity related to embezzlement or misappropriation of public funds by government officials tends to have significant consequences pertaining to the large scale reduction of funds meant for development purposes. Thus, misappropriation of public funds deters the government body of the region to rightly and effectively pursue the goals set for programs like the United Nations Development Program to help cater for the needs